Thursday, May 21, 2020

Democracy And Individualism A Nation Of A Homogenous...

Democracy and Individualism In the 1800’s, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, and many others had visions for America that involved a nation of a homogenous type of society. It was believed in order to create a better nation that people other than the European Americans needed to be eradicated. In these beliefs, these men affected the America nation through their trials and tribulations, which help guide society into what it is today. Thomas Jefferson was a man who viewed white as beautiful. In which his views of black and Native Americans played a vital role in the development of the frontier. He viewed America as a Republic society with only room for white people. So, he envisioned creating a pure group of white people that could attune†¦show more content†¦Jefferson believed then once paid in full he would release his slaves upon the payment of his debts. Although his beliefs, he died before paying his debt off still owning slaves. Secondly, Jefferson’s views of the Indians were that the Indians could either be incorporated into his vision or they could be eradicated from the society all together. Jefferson claimed Indians had the potential to conforming to the republic structure that black slaves did not. Also, Jefferson wanted friendship with the Indians, but under the conditions that they either conform completely to the new republic or they were to stay west of the Mississippi in the fronti er. During this time, Andrew Jackson also contributed to the development of the frontier by his wish to remove all Indians in the east. Jackson along with the state of Georgia wanted to eliminate Indians in the east. Jackson was able to negotiate on treaties with some Indians tribes to move to other lands but the others decided to stay and fight for the land that was theirs. The Indians claimed they had rights to their land that had been negotiated and given to them in the past. This issue between Georgia and the Indians made it to the Supreme Court where the court sided with the Indians on the issue of keeping their land. Also, the courted decided that states could not decide where Indians could live; it was only to be decided by theShow MoreRelatedWestern Culture And Policies That Have Shaped The Modern World1523 Words   |  7 Pagesespecially the Middle East, in many ways. Since the sixteenth century, the nations of Western civilization have been the driving wheels of modernization. Globalization is simply the spread of modern institutions and ideas from one high power to the wider world. Technological innovation and economic growth along with such concepts as democracy, individualism, and the rule of law administered by an impartial judiciary, set Western societies above and beyond any possible rival. Other cultures looked to the WestRead MoreCulture Drives Globalization Essay1559 Words   |  7 Pagesthe world over. On the one hand, proponents of globalization say it has promoted information exchange, led to a greater understanding of other cultures, raised living standards, increased purchasing power (most especially in the west) and allowed democracy to triumph over communism.† Globalization usually takes different forms and will vary in meaning depending on the individual or group interested. Globalization has generally come about to meaning the interconnectedness of the world. â€Å"Cultures, economiesRead MoreIntercultural Business Communicatio n Assignment2649 Words   |  11 Pagesof faith – a failure of analysis’: In particular, McSweeney questions the plausibility of national cultures being systematically causal, i.e. that the identification of the differences causes or leads directly to the behaviour of the nation or people from that nation. McSweeney is also concerned that Hofstede s work has led others to believe that influential national cultures exist and that this work is based on evidence of a poor quality. McSweeney contends, therefore, that Hofstede s projectRead MoreCultural Distance For Coca Cola3396 Words   |  14 Pagesdimension exist in society wherein masculinity reflects preference in society for heroism, assertiveness, achievement and material reward for success. Society would be highly competitive in nature in this dimension. 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The history of Hong Kong is characterized mainly by the major elements and dimensions it has in this region. Since Hong Kong’s introduction into the WTO, it has been integrated by the surrounding locals conducting business in this nation, which compares mainly to United States’ culture and in business as well. (Ling Lai, 2010). Hong Kong has portrayed the influence of age, gender, social class, and ethnic identity into its culture and to areas around them. English is a languageRead MoreFeminism in India4692 Words   |  19 Pagesequal opportunities for Indian women. It is the pursuit of  womens rights  within the society of  India. Like their feminist counterparts all over the world,  feminists  in India seek gender equality: the right to work for equal wages, the right to equal access to health and education, and equal political rights.[1]  Indian feminists also have fought against culture-specific issues within Indias  patriarchal  society, such as  inheritance laws  and the practice of widow immolation known as  Sati. The historyRead MoreEssay on International Management9589 Words   |  39 PagesProject results. Table Adapted from Kohls (1981); Marquardt and Kearsley (1999) Figure 1: Value Differences between Canadian and Japanese Cultures Canadian Cultural Values Japanese Cultural Values Impact on Project Management. Individualism Collectivism/Group + Achievement Modesty X Winning Collaboration/Harmony + Guilt (internal self-control) Shame (external control) X Pride Saving face X Respect for results Respect for status/Ascription + Respect for competence Read MoreGung Ho Movie Analysis9681 Words   |  39 Pagesor not. Afterwards, we will take a closer look to the communication aspect of culture, and to the differences in leadership styles between the Japanese and the Americans. Finally, we will analyse how it has been possible, in the movie, for the two nations to collaborate by building a third culture. Prior to starting of our theoretical, we have to stress the fact that this film was realized by an American director. Indeed, the film is made of numerous stereotypes and adopts a clear American interpretationRead MoreStarbucks in Japan9274 Words   |  38 Pagesdu quarter 2 de 2011 ils en à ©taient à   935 et pas 911.f - PESTEL 1. Political aspects: Japan has a constitutional monarchy. That is a form of state with a monarch at the head of the country, and the prime minister who represents democracy. The actual emperor Akihito is still very respected among Japanese in spite of his rare public appearances. The actual Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda is head of the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ). Until 2010, the conservative Liberal Democratic Party

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Apollo 13 Case Analysis - 1599 Words

Green Team Apollo 13 Case Analysis The primary questions and issues you debated and discussed (i.e., what did your team think was most relevant about the case?). First, the green team discussed the success of the mission. We had a split jury on whether or not we thought the mission was successful. Both sides of the argument were well supported and we agreed to disagree with the following conclusions: one side took the stance that the mission was not successful because they did not make it to the moon; the other side took the stance that the mission was successful because the astronauts’ lives were saved and that the mission evolved into bringing the astronauts home safely. The second issue the green team debated was whether or not†¦show more content†¦The second element of leadership according to Singh is expertise. Singh argued â€Å"raw energy can be wasteful, even destructive, if not harnessed well. Therefore, one must be skilled at handling it and channeling it for constructive purposes.† Singh latter added expertise is fostered by the â€Å"advanced know-how.† It is acquired through one’s specialized education and training in the related discipline and through â€Å"personal earning distilled from day-to – day experiences† (p. 739). Lovell and his team received extensive training to prepare for their mission prior to launching. Kranz and his team are competent in directing the astronauts for the mission. The teams shared and exchanged each other’s knowledge and expertise to execute the plan to persevere through the danger from death. The third element of leadership profile is integrity (Singh, 2008). Singh argued integrity may be an old fashioned virtue. However, â€Å"no company can claim excellence unless its management is based on a set of non-negotiable values (p. 739). Integrity is a broad term, some of the attributes to this word pertains to the film are honest/transparency, ethics or integrity, communication consistency, honoring commitments, mutual respect, extend credit and appreciation for job well done, accountability for mistakes and stay grounded to his/her beliefs and values (Singh, 2008). The idea of integrity and ethics were shown throughout the film. Lovell and his team were transparentShow MoreRelatedEssay on A Successful Failure in Apollo 13 Project829 Words   |  4 PagesAfter watching the Apollo 13 movie, it is interesting to know that this was a â€Å"Successful failure† of a project. This is due to the fact that astronauts returned to Earth safely but they never made it to the moon. After the crew headed for the moon they had to disappointedly cancel the mission before it could be completed and return to earth, when the oxygen tank that exploded caused the spacecraft to malfunctioning. A brief history to puts things in perspective, Apollo program was establishedRead MoreThe Audit Report And Internal Control E1749 Words   |  7 Pagesby Apollo Shoes. The audit team has developed an audit report in response to the audit and has also provided a description of the evidence, a description of the account sampling and testing procedures used, and has also given a brief description of the value of an audit report. This report is only to reflect Team D’s opinion regarding Apollo’s internal controls, financial statements, and management’s assessment. Management Responsibilities We have audited the financial statements of Apollo ShoesRead MoreApollo 13 - Paper 52671 Words   |  11 PagesINTRODUCTION Apollo 13, the 1995 motion picture directed by Ron Howard, is the true story of Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and Jack Swigert, a team of astronauts reassigned to a space flight with diminished preparation time. 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Apollo 13 chronicles the events of the 1971 lunar mission involving three astronauts; Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and Jack Swigert. After a successful launch, a critical errorRead MoreThe Apollo Group (University of Phoenix) Case Study #45 Essay2627 Words   |  11 PagesPHOENIX The Apollo Group, Inc. (University of Phoenix) Case Study #45 JacQueline E. Smalls Capella University Table of Contents Abstract†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Page 3 Planning Strategically for Domestic and Global Environments†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.Page 5 Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats†¦..†¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Page 7 Solving Problems†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦.Page 8 Creating Value†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Page 9 The Apollo Group, Inc.’s FinancialRead MoreQuantitative Data Problem Solving1790 Words   |  8 Pageseverything from race and gender to reality and fantasy get in the way. 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Software Security Risk Analysis Using Fuzzy Expert System Free Essays

| | |Software Level of Security Risk Analysis Using Fuzzy | |Expert System | |[ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENT] | UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA FACULTY OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SESSION 2 – 2010/2011 |NURUL AZRIN BT AIRRUDIN – B031010343 | |SITI NURSHAFIEQA BT SUHAIMI – B031010313 | |NUR SHAHIDA BT MUHTAR – B031010266 | | | |LECTURE NAME: DR ABD. SAMAD HASSAN BASARI | | | |[12th APRIL 2011] | SOFTWARE LEVEL OF SECURITY RISK ANALYSIS USING FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEM ABSTRACT There is wide concern on the security of software systems because many organizations depend largely on them for their day-to-day operations. Since we have not seen a software system that is completely secure, there is need to analyze and determine the security risk of emerging software systems. We will write a custom essay sample on Software Security Risk Analysis Using Fuzzy Expert System or any similar topic only for you Order Now This work presents a technique for analyzing software security using fuzzy expert system. The inputs to the system are suitable fuzzy sets representing linguistic values for software security goals of confidentiality, integrity and availability. The expert rules were constructed using the Mamdani fuzzy reasoning in order to adequately analyze the inputs. The defuzzication technique was done using Centroid technique. The implementation of the design is done using MATLAB fuzzy logic tool because of its ability to implement fuzzy based systems. Using newly develop software products from three software development organizations as test cases, the results show a system that can be used to effectively analyze software security risk. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN The design is basically divided into four stages: 1) DESIGN OF THE LINGUISTIC VARIABLES The inputs to the system are the values assumed for the software security goal thru confidentiality, integrity and availability. The goals are assumed to be the same weight and a particular valued is determined for each of them based on questions that are answered about the specific software. Also the values determined for each of the input are defined as a fuzzy number instead of crisp numbers by using suitable fuzzy sets. Designing the fuzzy system requires that the different inputs (that is, confidentiality, integrity, and availability) are represented by fuzzy sets. The fuzzy sets are in turn represented by a membership function. The membership function used in this paper is the triangular membership function which is a three point function defined by minimum, maximum and modal values where usually represented in 1. [pic] Figure 1: Triangular Membership Function 2) THE FUZZY SETS The level of confidentiality is defined based on the scales of not confidential, slightly confidential, very confidential and extremely confidential. The level of integrity is also defined based on the scales very low, low, high, very high, and extra high. Also, the level of availability is also defined by the scales very low, low, high, very high and extra high. The levels defined above are based on a range definition with an assumed interval of [0 -10]. The ranges for the inputs are shown in tables 1 and 2. DESCRIPTION |RANGE | |Non-Confidential |0-1 | |Slightly Confidential |2-3 | |Confidential |4-6 | |Very Confidential |7-8 | |Extremely Confidential |9-10 | Table 1: Range of inputs for Confidentiality Very Low |Low |High |Very High |Extra High | |0 – 1 |2 – 3 |4 – 6 |7 – 8 |9 – 10 | Table 2: Range of inputs for Integrity |Very Low |Low |High |Very High |Extra High | |0 – 1 |2 â₠¬â€œ 3 |4 – 6 |7 – 8 |9 – 10 | Table 3: Range of inputs for Availability |DESCRIPTION |RANGE | |Not Secure |0 – 3 | |Slightly Secure |4 – 9 | |Secure |10 – 18 | |Very Secure |19 – 25 | |Extremely Secure |26 – 30 | Table 4: Level Of Security Risk The fuzzy sets above are represented by membership functions. The corresponding membership functions for confidentiality, integrity and availability are presented in figures below [pic] Figure 1 : Membership functions for Confidentiality Similarly, the output, that is, the level of security risk is also represented by fuzzy sets and then a membership function. The level of security risk is defined based on the scales: not secure, slightly secure, secure, very secure, and extremely secure within the range of [0- 30]. The range definition is shown in table above. The membership function for the output fuzzy set is presented in figure below. [pic] Figure 2 : Membership functions for Integrity [pic] Figure 3 : Membership functions for Availability [pic] Figure 4 : Level Of Security Risk 3) THE RULES OF THE FUZZY SYSTEM Once the input and output fuzzy sets and membership functions are constructed, the rules are then formulated. The rules are formulated based on the input parameters (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) and the output i. e. level of security risk. The levels of confidentiality, integrity, and availability are used in the antecedent of rules and the level of security risk as the consequent of rules. A fuzzy rule is conditional statement in the form: IF x is A THEN y is B. Where x and y are linguistic variables; and A and B are linguistic values determined by fuzzy sets on universe of discourses X and Y, respectively. Both the antecedent and consequent of a fuzzy rule can have multiple parts. All parts of the antecedent are calculated simultaneously and resolved in a single number and the antecedent affects all parts of the consequent equally. Some of the rules used in the design of this fuzzy Systems are as follow: 1. If (Confidentiality is Not Confidential) and (Integrity is Very Low) and (Availability is Very Low) then (Security Risk is Not Secure). 2. If (Confidentiality is Not Confidential) and (Integrity is Very Low) and (Availability is Low) then (Security Risk is Slightly Secure). 3. If (Confidentiality is Extremely Confidential) and (Integrity is Extra High) and (Availability is High) then (Security Risk is Slightly Secure). †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 125. If (Confidentiality is Not Confidential) and (Integrity is Very Low) and (Availability is high) then (Security Risk is Extremely Secure). The rules above were formulated using the Mamdani max-min fuzzy reasoning. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION The linguistic variables were determined with the extent of the positive and negative responses to a well constructed security questions that are presented in form of on-line questionnaire. As it was mentioned earlier, MATLAB was used for the implementation. The linguistic inputs to the system are supplied through the graphical user interface called rule viewer. Once the rule viewer has been opened, the input variables are supplied in the text box captioned input with each of them separated with a space. a) THE FIS EDITOR The fuzzy inference system editor shows a summary of the fuzzy inference system. It shows the mapping of the inputs to the system type and to the output. The names of the input variables and the processing methods for the FIS can be changed through the FIS editor. Figure 5: The FIS editor b) THE MEMBERSHIP FUNCTION EDITOR This can be opened from the command window by using the plotmf function but more easily through the GUI. The membership function editor shows a plot of highlighted input or output variable along their possible ranges and against the probability of occurrence. The name and the range of a membership value can be changed, so also the range of the particular variable itself through the membership function editor. [pic] Figure 6: The Membership Function editor c) THE RULE EDITOR The rule editor can be used to add, delete or change a rule. It is also used to change the connection type and the weight of a rule. The rule editor for this application is shown in figure 7. pic] Figure 7: Rule Editor d) THE RULE VIEWER The text box captioned input is used to supply the three input variables needed in the system. The appropriate input corresponds to the number of YES answer in the questionnaire for each of the input variables. For example, in the figure 8, all the input variables are 5 and the corresponding output is 13. 9, which specified at the top of the corresponding graphs. The input for each o f the input variables is specified at the top of the section corresponding to them, so also the output variable. The rule viewer for this work is presented in figure 8. [pic] Figure 8: The Rule editor e) THE SURFACE VIEWER The surface viewer shown in figure 9 is a 3-D graph that shows the relationship between the inputs and the output. The output (security Risk) is represented on the Z-axis while 2 of the inputs (Confidentiality and Integrity) are on the x and y axes and the other input (Availability) is held constant. The surface viewer shows a plot of the possible ranges of the input variables against the possible ranges of the output. 4) EVALUATION The security risk analysis system was evaluated using three newly completed software products from three different software development organizations. The output determines the security level of software under consideration. The summary of the evaluation is given in figure 11. For product A, 5 is the score for confidentiality, 5 for the integrity and 5 for the availability. |Software |Input |Output |Significance |Security Level | |Product A |5 5 5 |13. |45% slightly secure, 55% secure |46. 33 % | |Product B |8 7 8 |24. 2 |20% secure, 80% very secure |80. 60 % | |Product C |10 10 10 |28. 4 |35% very secure, 65% extremely secure |94. 67 % | Table 5 : Evaluation of Different Input Variables [pic] Figure 9 : The Surface Viewer [pic] Figure 10 : Histogram 3D CONCLUSION AND FINDING Thus, this work proposes a fuzzy logic-based technique for determination of level of security risk associated with software systems. Fuzzy logic is one of the major tools used for security analysis. The major goals of secure software which are used as the inputs to them system are the preservation of confidentiality (preventing unauthorized disclosure of information), preservation of integrity (preventing unauthorized alteration of information) and preservation of availability (preventing unauthorized destruction or denial of access or service to an authentic user). It might be necessary to redesign this system in a way that it will be deployable and will be without the use of MATLAB. It might also be necessary to use an adaptive fuzzy logic technique for security risk analysis. We have been able to design a system that can be used to evaluate the security risk associated with the production of secure software systems. This will definitely help software organizations meet up with the standard requirements. A technique for assessing security of software system before final deployment has been presented. The result of this study shows that if the software producing companies will incorporate security risk analysis into the production of software system, the issue of insecurity of software will be held to the minimum if not eliminated. This study has also revealed that if each of the software security goals can be increased to the maximum, then the level security will also be increased and the risk associated will be eliminated. Finally, security risk analysis is a path towards producing secure software and should be considered a significant activity by software development organizations. How to cite Software Security Risk Analysis Using Fuzzy Expert System, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

Revelation Book Essays - Observational Astronomy, Sky Plc, Sky, Gods

Revelation Book The Book of Revelation appears to be an account of things that take place beyond the earth where Jesus of Nazareth lived and died as well as where John's community was living. It is a vision of events in the heavens or the sky. If we do not assume that all the details about the sky and those who live in the sky were immediately and supernaturally revealed to John, then John and his readers could have become familiar with these details from two types of persons in the Mediterranean society who devoted themselves to knowledge of the sky. One type of person was those called "the wise men, the learned, the scholars." These people were in awe of the sky and insisted that no one could really grasp the greatness and magnificence of the celestial spheres. The best posture was to stand in awe of the creator. They thought that as far as celestial phenomena were concerned, one need only pay attention to traditional lore about weather, farming, sailing, and the like. On the other hand there was the type that believed one could surely get to understand what impact the sky and celestial beings had on human societies. This group included Babylonian, Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and Israelite astronomers, astrologers, prophets and or seers. This group sought information about their human groups from and concerning those living beings that controlled the skies. Of course their perception of the sky and their descriptions of those perceptions followed from their ethnic stories and ideologies. But for Israelites in the Hellenistic period, there would be God and a whole range of living sky beings, good and evil, never labeled as deities even if they performed the functions of deities. For the others, there were God, gods, lesser deities, and demons. Everyone who read and experienced sky phenomena perceived the various servants of God and the range of celestial forces, as well as thunder lightning, earthquakes, sky rumblings, hail, rain, sulfur rain. So John wasn't the only one with all of these details about the sky. There were other sources where you would be able to find such information as just explained above. John and his readers would think that events in the sky were significant for people on earth because they believed that the events or sky beings were commonly believed to be in control of human social realties: life and death, war and peace, climate and fertility, and the like. Therefore if the sky was perceived to be all of the human social realties then obviously this is why it would be so significant on earth. All of these events are important to the every day way of living and if these events were coming from visions of the sky then with out any doubt they would be extremely important on the earth and to everyone one on the earth. They believed that the events in the sky were significant for the people on earth also because only people of high ranking or status were able to view these sights. So if a king, priest, princes, or Roman senators say that they saw visions in the sky then people of lower elite's would believe what they say and if they said things that happened in their visions the people on earth would follow because to them it is coming from a higher position in life so they must be correct in what they are saying. People today consider events in the sky that impact on the earth and its inhabitants as atmospheric phenomena. Lightning, tornado thunder, sudden cloudbursts, and the like are simply all part of the weather. However the ancient Mediterranean's perceived the sky and considered such events as signs and sought social meanings in them. For the ancients, nothing could possibly happen in the sky that did not in some way impact the earth and its inhabitants. For example the account of Moses' meeting with God on Sinai is replete with the atmospheric phenomena. Smoke is interpreted as indicating God's presence ("because God came down upon it in fire"); thunder is interpreted as God's voice (" God replied to him in thunder"). So the ancient Mediterranean's perceived the sky as having total power on earth and the people that were on it. The sky to them was the all mighty everything that the sky did like lightning, thunder etc. they would right away put it in relation to something. They would always think of a reason for why it happened. They would never take

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

A Comma (or Its Absence) Can Change a Sentences Message

A Comma (or Its Absence) Can Change a Sentences Message A Comma (or Its Absence) Can Change a Sentence’s Message A Comma (or Its Absence) Can Change a Sentence’s Message By Mark Nichol Writers are divided in opinion about punctuating introductory words or phrases- and often, they are at war with themselves with the topic. Even adherents of open punctuation will generally insert a comma after an adverb, whether it is transitional, like however, or descriptive, like suddenly, and will follow even a brief modifying phrase such as â€Å"according to the study† or â€Å"contrary to popular belief† with pausing punctuation. But somewhere in between- in the case of a short opening phrase like â€Å"last year† or â€Å"in retrospect†- many people believe a comma setting the phrase off from the sentence’s main clause is unnecessary. For consistency, I advocate generally using a comma regardless of the phrase’s length, but even though I am a close-punctuation adherent, I realize there are exceptions. Consider the use of please, for example. Read this sentence: â€Å"Please sit down.† Now, read this one. â€Å"Please, sit down.† Did you read them differently? I hope so. The intent behind each statement is distinct: â€Å"Please sit down† is an imperative barely tempered by a courtesy term; the person to whom the statement is delivered is expected to comply. By contrast, â€Å"Please, sit down† is an entreaty; the speaker sincerely hopes that the other person will accept the invitation. There’s a difference, too, between â€Å"Of course you would say whatever you thought I wanted to hear† and â€Å"Of course, you would say whatever you thought I wanted to hear.† The first sentence is delivered with some heat; the speaker’s tone is wounded and derisive. The second statement, by contrast, is more measured and reflective. These examples are more subtle than when one decides whether one should punctuate, for example, â€Å"In time you will understand why I acted as I did†: You either agree with me that if one is to punctuate a more extensive introductory phrase (â€Å"When you have time to reflect, you will understand why I acted as I did†)- and most writers will choose to do so- it’s only logical to treat a more concise opening phrase the same way (otherwise, where does one draw the line?), or you don’t agree. But sometimes, what a sentence communicates changes with the mere insertion or omission of a comma, and the writer should be sensitive to such nuances to help the reader read between the lines. Todays video: Calls to Action Pluralizing Compound Nouns Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:4 Types of Gerunds and Gerund PhrasesYay, Hooray, Woo-hoo and Other AcclamationsEnglish Grammar 101: Sentences, Clauses and Phrases

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Italian Capitalization Rules

Italian Capitalization Rules In Italian, an initial capital letter (maiuscolo) is required in two instances: At the beginning of a phrase or immediately after a period, question mark, or exclamation markWith proper nouns Other than these cases, the use of uppercase letters in Italian depends on factors such as stylistic choices or publishing tradition. There is also the maiuscola reverenziale (reverential capital), which is still used frequently with pronouns and possessive adjectives that refer to Dio (God), people or things considered sacred, or people of high regard (pregare Dio e avere fiducia in Lui; mi rivolgo alla Sua attenzione, signor Presidente). In general, though, in contemporary usage, there is a tendency to avoid capitalization that is considered unnecessary. Capitalization at the Beginning of a Phrase To illustrate the occurrences where capital letters are used at the beginning of a phrase here are some examples: Titles in various genres: not just text, but also chapter headings, articles, and other subdivisionsThe start of any text or paragraphAfter a periodAfter a question mark or exclamation mark, but an initial lowercase may be permitted if there are strong logic and continuity of thoughtAt the beginning of a direct speech If a sentence begins with an ellipsis (...), then usually the examples described above begin with lowercase, except when the first word is a proper name. Those instances still require the use of the uppercase. Similarly (but more in terms of a typography choice) is the case in which a capital letter is used at the beginning of each verse in poetry, a device that is sometimes used even when verse is not written on a new line (for reasons of space), instead of using a slash (/), which is generally preferable to avoid ambiguity. Capitalizing Proper Nouns In general, capitalize the first letter of proper names (whether real or fictitious), and any terms that take their place (sobriquets, aliases, nicknames): Person (common names and surnames), animals, godsNames of entities, places, or geographical areas (natural or urban), astronomical entities (as well as astrological)Names of streets and urban subdivisions, buildings and other architectural structuresNames of groups, organizations, movements, and institutional and geopolitical entitiesTitles of artistic works, trade names, products, services, companies, eventsNames of religious or secular holidays There are also cases in which the initial letter is capitalized even with common nouns, for reasons ranging from the need to distinguish them from common concepts, personification, and antonomasia, to showing respect. Examples include: The names of historical eras and events and even of geological periods, centuries and decades; the latter can be written in lower case, but it is preferred to use uppercase if the intent is to call out the historical period.The names of a populace; usually it is customary to capitalize the historical peoples of the past (i Romani), and use lowercase for present-day people (gli italiani). Somewhat more ambiguous, however, is the use of capital letters in Italian compound nouns or in those nouns consisting of a sequence of words; there are a couple of hard-and-fast guidelines, though, that can be recommended: Initial capital letters are required with the sequence common name surname (Carlo Rossi) or more than one common name (Gian Carlo Rossi)Proper names used within nominative sequences such as: Camillo Benso conte di Cavour, Leonardo da Vinci The prepositional particles (particelle preposizionali), di, de, or d are not capitalized when used with the names of historical figures, when surnames didnt exist, to introduce patronyms (de Medici) or toponyms (Francesco da Assisi, Tommaso dAquino); they are capitalized, though, when they form an integral part of contemporary surnames (De Nicola, DAnnunzio, Di Pietro). Capitalization finds its most widespread in the names of institutions, associations, political parties and the like.  The reason for this profusion of capital letters is usually a sign of respect (Chiesa Cattolica), or the tendency to maintain the use of uppercase letters in an abbreviation or acronym (CSM Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura). However, the initial capital can also be limited to just the first word, which is the only obligatory one: the Chiesa cattolica, Consiglio superiore della magistratura.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Attachment and Their Role in Intergenerational Continuity Essay

Attachment and Their Role in Intergenerational Continuity - Essay Example However, the attachment that humans experience is not utilitarian nor is it driven merely by a drive to satisfy some basic needs. Animal and human attachment process are directly linked to the social aspects of our lives and the constraints of survival in an uncertain environment. Bowlby's Theory of Attachment is of great value in studying the competence of human being in the struggle for survival, which in Darwin's view is possible based on fitness. The current evolutionary thinking considers structures and behavioral systems found in the population contributed to the reproductive success of the bearers in the milieu of evolutionary adapted ness. The biological function of attachment is to provide the conditions that keep proximity between infant and caregiver, which is essential for the infant to survive in a hostile environment. The caregiver-child strategies are aimed at accomplishing three universal goals. The are infant survival and eventual reproduction, economic self-sufficiency, and enculturation (Levine, 1982) The process of natural selection prefers individuals who invest a great deal on childcare and rearing. Thus the parents who devote to protect their offspring from hostile forces around them, like predatory and parasitic animals do so by developing bonds affection between them and their offspring. During early days of growth the young learn to discriminate between the parent that cares for them and other member of their species because parents discriminate between their own offspring and other small ones in the same species and may actually show aggression to young which are not their own. The child develops the filial imprinting and the young in no time learns to recognize their parents and follow them everywhere keeping nearness and close contact with them and shunning all but the close kin. With the development of locomotion, the child becomes an explorer. Nevertheless, its exploration of the environment is a gradual process and in a way an antithetical to attachment. The child does not embark upon a path of exploration suddenly. Initially there are spurts of exploration and return to a security zone (mother). In the interplay between exploration and return to the safety zone the child is trained to achieve a balance in his foray in to the world of danger. One of the most salient roles of the attachment behavior is to intervene in the baby's explorations of the environment and to keep it under leash so that through a slow process the child may gain the confidence to face the world alone. It is amazing that babies also actively cooperate in this process. Children approach their caregivers not only in response to danger but to ascertain their presence, which becomes an anchor for the children to explore securely the environment. Scientists have studied the nature of the attachments and made certain categories. However, these categories may not be considered as exclusive watertight compartments. The patterns of attachment are four: secure attachment, anxious-ambivalent insecure attachment, and anxious-avoidant insecure attachment and disorganized attachment. The four patterns of attachment has great ramification in the study of human behavior and can give important clues to adult behavior later in