Friday, August 21, 2020

The Kite Runner By John Kite Essay Example For Students

The Kite Runner By John Kite Essay The Kite Runner is an uncommonly interesting book. It is an incredibly bothering book with most of the reasonable focal points. You know when you re seeing a movie and someone is getting tormented harshly and there is blood everywhere and it is a genuinely reasonable scene? Nevertheless, in spite of all that you see in spite of the way that it s net since you have to perceive what will happen to the person? That is the way Kite Runner is for me. In spite of the way that the book is outstandingly exasperating in various parts I would t be able to put it down considering the way that I have to keep seeking after to perceive what befalls the person after the practical and aggravating scenes. Are the ambush scenes disturbing just as the whole area on the Buzkashi rivalry. The Kite Runner has a great deal of savagery in the book yet despite the fact that the book is vicious, it s still an awesome book and you can gain proficiency with a ton of the critical estimation of the book.Amid the period of when this book occurs in Afghanistan there were/are various people that are uninformed. Amir was learned and occasionally misused it. Since Amir was significantly increasingly sharp that Hassan he was constantly playing character beguilements with Hassan and he would capitulate to them since he didn t for the most part know lies from the real world. Assef causes me to recollect Hitler considering his perspective and exercises. Assef required Afghanistan to be essentially unadulterated afghan people and Hitler was a similar route since he simply required flawless Germans in Germany. Anyway the smart part is they required this yet meanwhile Assef was not flawless afghan and Hitler wasn t unadulterated German. There were n. .mir is getting the chance to esteem Soraya more and their relationship is getting more grounded. It s skirting on like Amir realizes his father will be gone soon so he is putting the love and ceaselessly endeavoring to satisfy Baba into doing that for Soraya. Amir has a lot of mixed sentiments while he is getting readied for his wedding. Since Baba has passed on he is making some hard memories to topple with that yet meanwhile is the most joyful courteous fellow on earth since he is wedding the woman he treasures. Amir needs to sit and reflect and review when his father and him got back for the administration of giving the word Baba revealed to Amir something fundamental. He told his that it was the best day of his life. This is fundamental now since this suggested Baba supported of the wedding and we as a whole understand that Baba s evaluation matters an impressive measure to Amir.

Tuesday, July 14, 2020

Characteristics and Qualities of Heroism

Characteristics and Qualities of Heroism Theories Personality Psychology Print The Characteristics of a Hero What makes someone a hero? By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Updated on August 28, 2019 Oivind Hovland / Getty Images More in Theories Personality Psychology Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology What characteristics or qualities make a person a hero? Is there a hero gene? According to one recent study, the answer might rest in what type of heroism we are addressing. Researchers have found that people who had engaged in one-time acts of bravery (like rushing into a burning building or rescuing someone from the path of an oncoming train) are not necessarily that much different from control groups of non-heroes. By contrast, people who engage in lifelong heroism (such as professional nurses who regularly comfort the sick and dying) do share a number of important personality traits such as empathy, nurturance, and a need to live by a moral code. Definitions of Heroism The scientific study of heroism is a relatively recent topic of interest within the field of psychology. Researchers have offered different definitions of exactly what makes a hero, but most suggest that heroism involves prosocial, altruistic actions that involve an element of personal risk or sacrifice.   Researchers Franco, Blau, and Zimbardo suggest that heroism involves more than just this, however. In their definition, heroism is characterized by: Actions that are done in service of others who are in need, whether it is for an individual, a group, or a communityActions that are performed voluntarilyThe individual recognizes the potential risk or sacrifice they are making by taking these actionsThe heroic individual willing accepts the anticipated sacrifice they are makingThey engage in these actions without any expectation of reward or external gain?? The Characteristics of Heroism Researchers also do not necessarily agree about the central characteristics that make up heroism. One study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology suggested that heroes have 12 central traits which are: Moral integrityBraveryConvictionCourageSelf-sacrificeSelflessnessDeterminationInspirationalHelpfulProtectiveHonestyDetermination The psychology of heroism might not be well understood, but many experts do believe that it is possible for people to learn to be heroes. The following are just a few of the major characteristics that researchers have ascribed to heroes. Heroes Are Concerned With the Well-being of Others According to researchers, empathy, and compassion for others are key variables that contribute to heroic behavior. People who rush in to help others in the face of danger and adversity do so because they genuinely care about the safety and well-being of other people. One study found that people who have heroic tendencies also have a much higher degree of empathy. People who engage in acts of heroism feel concern and care for the people around them and they are able to feel what those in need of help are feeling. The Benefits of Empathy Heroes Are See Things From the Perspective of Others Researchers suggest that heroes arent just compassionate and caring; they have a knack for being able to see things from the perspective of others. They can walk a mile in another mans shoes, so to speak. When they encounter a situation where an individual is in need, they are immediately able to see themselves in that same situation and see what needs to be done to help. Heroes Have Useful Skills and Strengths Clearly, having the training or physical ability to deal with a crisis can also play a major role in whether or not people become heroes. In situations where would-be rescuers lack the know-how or sheer physical strength to make a difference, people are less likely to help or are more likely to find less direct ways to take action. And in many cases, this approach is probably best; after all, people senselessly rushing into a dangerous situation can pose even more difficulties for rescue workers. People who are trained and capable, such as those with first aid training and experience, are more ready and able to step up when their skills are needed. Heroes Have a Strong Moral Compass According to heroism researchers Zimbardo and Franco, heroes have two essential qualities that set them apart from non-heroes: they live by their values and they are willing to endure personal risk to protect those values. Their values and personal beliefs give them the courage and resolve to endure risk and even danger in order to adhere to those principles. Heroes Are Competent and Confident It takes both skill and self-confidence to rush in where others fear to tread. Researchers suggest that people who perform heroic acts tend to feel confident in themselves and their abilities.?? When faced with a crisis, they have an intrinsic belief that they are capable of handling the challenge and achieving success no matter what the odds. Part of this confidence might stem from above-average coping skills and abilities to manage stress. How People Become More Resilient Heroes Face Fear A person who rushes into a burning building to save another person is not just extraordinarily brave; he or she also possesses an ability to overcome fear. Researchers suggest that heroic individuals are positive thinkers by nature, which contributes to their ability to look past the immediate danger of a situation and see a more optimistic outcome. In many cases, these individuals may also have a higher tolerance for risk. Plenty of caring and kind people might shrink back in the face of danger. Those who do leap into action are typically more likely to take greater risks in multiple aspects of their lives. Heroes keep working on their goals, even after multiple setbacks. Persistence is another quality commonly shared by heroes. In one 2010 study, researchers found that people identified as heroes were more likely to put a positive spin on negative events. When faced with a potentially life-threatening illness, people with heroic tendencies might focus on the good that might come from the situation such as a renewed appreciation for life or an increased closeness with loved ones.?? The decision to act heroically is a choice that many of us will be called upon to make at some point in time. By conceiving of heroism as a universal attribute of human nature, not as a rare feature of the few “heroic elect,” heroism becomes something that seems in the range of possibilities for every person, perhaps inspiring more of us to answer that call, write heroism researchers, Zeno Franco, and Philip Zimbardo. A Word From Verywell Researchers have found that in a lot of ways, heroes are not all that different from most people. However, there are a number of skills you can build that can boost your hero characteristics. Building empathy, becoming competent and skilled, and being persistent in the face of obstacles are all abilities you can work on over time. By doing so, you can improve your ability to help others and come through in times of need.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Democracy And Individualism A Nation Of A Homogenous...

Democracy and Individualism In the 1800’s, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, and many others had visions for America that involved a nation of a homogenous type of society. It was believed in order to create a better nation that people other than the European Americans needed to be eradicated. In these beliefs, these men affected the America nation through their trials and tribulations, which help guide society into what it is today. Thomas Jefferson was a man who viewed white as beautiful. In which his views of black and Native Americans played a vital role in the development of the frontier. He viewed America as a Republic society with only room for white people. So, he envisioned creating a pure group of white people that could attune†¦show more content†¦Jefferson believed then once paid in full he would release his slaves upon the payment of his debts. Although his beliefs, he died before paying his debt off still owning slaves. Secondly, Jefferson’s views of the Indians were that the Indians could either be incorporated into his vision or they could be eradicated from the society all together. Jefferson claimed Indians had the potential to conforming to the republic structure that black slaves did not. Also, Jefferson wanted friendship with the Indians, but under the conditions that they either conform completely to the new republic or they were to stay west of the Mississippi in the fronti er. During this time, Andrew Jackson also contributed to the development of the frontier by his wish to remove all Indians in the east. Jackson along with the state of Georgia wanted to eliminate Indians in the east. Jackson was able to negotiate on treaties with some Indians tribes to move to other lands but the others decided to stay and fight for the land that was theirs. The Indians claimed they had rights to their land that had been negotiated and given to them in the past. This issue between Georgia and the Indians made it to the Supreme Court where the court sided with the Indians on the issue of keeping their land. Also, the courted decided that states could not decide where Indians could live; it was only to be decided by theShow MoreRelatedWestern Culture And Policies That Have Shaped The Modern World1523 Words   |  7 Pagesespecially the Middle East, in many ways. Since the sixteenth century, the nations of Western civilization have been the driving wheels of modernization. Globalization is simply the spread of modern institutions and ideas from one high power to the wider world. Technological innovation and economic growth along with such concepts as democracy, individualism, and the rule of law administered by an impartial judiciary, set Western societies above and beyond any possible rival. Other cultures looked to the WestRead MoreCulture Drives Globalization Essay1559 Words   |  7 Pagesthe world over. 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McSweeney is also concerned that Hofstede s work has led others to believe that influential national cultures exist and that this work is based on evidence of a poor quality. McSweeney contends, therefore, that Hofstede s projectRead MoreCultural Distance For Coca Cola3396 Words   |  14 Pagesdimension exist in society wherein masculinity reflects preference in society for heroism, assertiveness, achievement and material reward for success. Society would be highly competitive in nature in this dimension. 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Like their feminist counterparts all over the world,  feminists  in India seek gender equality: the right to work for equal wages, the right to equal access to health and education, and equal political rights.[1]  Indian feminists also have fought against culture-specific issues within Indias  patriarchal  society, such as  inheritance laws  and the practice of widow immolation known as  Sati. The historyRead MoreEssay on International Management9589 Words   |  39 PagesProject results. Table Adapted from Kohls (1981); Marquardt and Kearsley (1999) Figure 1: Value Differences between Canadian and Japanese Cultures Canadian Cultural Values Japanese Cultural Values Impact on Project Management. Individualism Collectivism/Group + Achievement Modesty X Winning Collaboration/Harmony + Guilt (internal self-control) Shame (external control) X Pride Saving face X Respect for results Respect for status/Ascription + Respect for competence Read MoreGung Ho Movie Analysis9681 Words   |  39 Pagesor not. Afterwards, we will take a closer look to the communication aspect of culture, and to the differences in leadership styles between the Japanese and the Americans. Finally, we will analyse how it has been possible, in the movie, for the two nations to collaborate by building a third culture. Prior to starting of our theoretical, we have to stress the fact that this film was realized by an American director. Indeed, the film is made of numerous stereotypes and adopts a clear American interpretationRead MoreStarbucks in Japan9274 Words   |  38 Pagesdu quarter 2 de 2011 ils en à ©taient à   935 et pas 911.f - PESTEL 1. Political aspects: Japan has a constitutional monarchy. That is a form of state with a monarch at the head of the country, and the prime minister who represents democracy. The actual emperor Akihito is still very respected among Japanese in spite of his rare public appearances. The actual Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda is head of the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ). Until 2010, the conservative Liberal Democratic Party

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Apollo 13 Case Analysis - 1599 Words

Green Team Apollo 13 Case Analysis The primary questions and issues you debated and discussed (i.e., what did your team think was most relevant about the case?). First, the green team discussed the success of the mission. We had a split jury on whether or not we thought the mission was successful. Both sides of the argument were well supported and we agreed to disagree with the following conclusions: one side took the stance that the mission was not successful because they did not make it to the moon; the other side took the stance that the mission was successful because the astronauts’ lives were saved and that the mission evolved into bringing the astronauts home safely. The second issue the green team debated was whether or not†¦show more content†¦The second element of leadership according to Singh is expertise. Singh argued â€Å"raw energy can be wasteful, even destructive, if not harnessed well. Therefore, one must be skilled at handling it and channeling it for constructive purposes.† Singh latter added expertise is fostered by the â€Å"advanced know-how.† It is acquired through one’s specialized education and training in the related discipline and through â€Å"personal earning distilled from day-to – day experiences† (p. 739). Lovell and his team received extensive training to prepare for their mission prior to launching. Kranz and his team are competent in directing the astronauts for the mission. The teams shared and exchanged each other’s knowledge and expertise to execute the plan to persevere through the danger from death. The third element of leadership profile is integrity (Singh, 2008). Singh argued integrity may be an old fashioned virtue. However, â€Å"no company can claim excellence unless its management is based on a set of non-negotiable values (p. 739). Integrity is a broad term, some of the attributes to this word pertains to the film are honest/transparency, ethics or integrity, communication consistency, honoring commitments, mutual respect, extend credit and appreciation for job well done, accountability for mistakes and stay grounded to his/her beliefs and values (Singh, 2008). The idea of integrity and ethics were shown throughout the film. Lovell and his team were transparentShow MoreRelatedEssay on A Successful Failure in Apollo 13 Project829 Words   |  4 PagesAfter watching the Apollo 13 movie, it is interesting to know that this was a â€Å"Successful failure† of a project. This is due to the fact that astronauts returned to Earth safely but they never made it to the moon. After the crew headed for the moon they had to disappointedly cancel the mission before it could be completed and return to earth, when the oxygen tank that exploded caused the spacecraft to malfunctioning. 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Software Security Risk Analysis Using Fuzzy Expert System Free Essays

| | |Software Level of Security Risk Analysis Using Fuzzy | |Expert System | |[ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENT] | UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA FACULTY OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY SESSION 2 – 2010/2011 |NURUL AZRIN BT AIRRUDIN – B031010343 | |SITI NURSHAFIEQA BT SUHAIMI – B031010313 | |NUR SHAHIDA BT MUHTAR – B031010266 | | | |LECTURE NAME: DR ABD. SAMAD HASSAN BASARI | | | |[12th APRIL 2011] | SOFTWARE LEVEL OF SECURITY RISK ANALYSIS USING FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEM ABSTRACT There is wide concern on the security of software systems because many organizations depend largely on them for their day-to-day operations. Since we have not seen a software system that is completely secure, there is need to analyze and determine the security risk of emerging software systems. We will write a custom essay sample on Software Security Risk Analysis Using Fuzzy Expert System or any similar topic only for you Order Now This work presents a technique for analyzing software security using fuzzy expert system. The inputs to the system are suitable fuzzy sets representing linguistic values for software security goals of confidentiality, integrity and availability. The expert rules were constructed using the Mamdani fuzzy reasoning in order to adequately analyze the inputs. The defuzzication technique was done using Centroid technique. The implementation of the design is done using MATLAB fuzzy logic tool because of its ability to implement fuzzy based systems. Using newly develop software products from three software development organizations as test cases, the results show a system that can be used to effectively analyze software security risk. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN The design is basically divided into four stages: 1) DESIGN OF THE LINGUISTIC VARIABLES The inputs to the system are the values assumed for the software security goal thru confidentiality, integrity and availability. The goals are assumed to be the same weight and a particular valued is determined for each of them based on questions that are answered about the specific software. Also the values determined for each of the input are defined as a fuzzy number instead of crisp numbers by using suitable fuzzy sets. Designing the fuzzy system requires that the different inputs (that is, confidentiality, integrity, and availability) are represented by fuzzy sets. The fuzzy sets are in turn represented by a membership function. The membership function used in this paper is the triangular membership function which is a three point function defined by minimum, maximum and modal values where usually represented in 1. [pic] Figure 1: Triangular Membership Function 2) THE FUZZY SETS The level of confidentiality is defined based on the scales of not confidential, slightly confidential, very confidential and extremely confidential. The level of integrity is also defined based on the scales very low, low, high, very high, and extra high. Also, the level of availability is also defined by the scales very low, low, high, very high and extra high. The levels defined above are based on a range definition with an assumed interval of [0 -10]. The ranges for the inputs are shown in tables 1 and 2. DESCRIPTION |RANGE | |Non-Confidential |0-1 | |Slightly Confidential |2-3 | |Confidential |4-6 | |Very Confidential |7-8 | |Extremely Confidential |9-10 | Table 1: Range of inputs for Confidentiality Very Low |Low |High |Very High |Extra High | |0 – 1 |2 – 3 |4 – 6 |7 – 8 |9 – 10 | Table 2: Range of inputs for Integrity |Very Low |Low |High |Very High |Extra High | |0 – 1 |2 â₠¬â€œ 3 |4 – 6 |7 – 8 |9 – 10 | Table 3: Range of inputs for Availability |DESCRIPTION |RANGE | |Not Secure |0 – 3 | |Slightly Secure |4 – 9 | |Secure |10 – 18 | |Very Secure |19 – 25 | |Extremely Secure |26 – 30 | Table 4: Level Of Security Risk The fuzzy sets above are represented by membership functions. The corresponding membership functions for confidentiality, integrity and availability are presented in figures below [pic] Figure 1 : Membership functions for Confidentiality Similarly, the output, that is, the level of security risk is also represented by fuzzy sets and then a membership function. The level of security risk is defined based on the scales: not secure, slightly secure, secure, very secure, and extremely secure within the range of [0- 30]. The range definition is shown in table above. The membership function for the output fuzzy set is presented in figure below. [pic] Figure 2 : Membership functions for Integrity [pic] Figure 3 : Membership functions for Availability [pic] Figure 4 : Level Of Security Risk 3) THE RULES OF THE FUZZY SYSTEM Once the input and output fuzzy sets and membership functions are constructed, the rules are then formulated. The rules are formulated based on the input parameters (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) and the output i. e. level of security risk. The levels of confidentiality, integrity, and availability are used in the antecedent of rules and the level of security risk as the consequent of rules. A fuzzy rule is conditional statement in the form: IF x is A THEN y is B. Where x and y are linguistic variables; and A and B are linguistic values determined by fuzzy sets on universe of discourses X and Y, respectively. Both the antecedent and consequent of a fuzzy rule can have multiple parts. All parts of the antecedent are calculated simultaneously and resolved in a single number and the antecedent affects all parts of the consequent equally. Some of the rules used in the design of this fuzzy Systems are as follow: 1. If (Confidentiality is Not Confidential) and (Integrity is Very Low) and (Availability is Very Low) then (Security Risk is Not Secure). 2. If (Confidentiality is Not Confidential) and (Integrity is Very Low) and (Availability is Low) then (Security Risk is Slightly Secure). 3. If (Confidentiality is Extremely Confidential) and (Integrity is Extra High) and (Availability is High) then (Security Risk is Slightly Secure). †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 125. If (Confidentiality is Not Confidential) and (Integrity is Very Low) and (Availability is high) then (Security Risk is Extremely Secure). The rules above were formulated using the Mamdani max-min fuzzy reasoning. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION The linguistic variables were determined with the extent of the positive and negative responses to a well constructed security questions that are presented in form of on-line questionnaire. As it was mentioned earlier, MATLAB was used for the implementation. The linguistic inputs to the system are supplied through the graphical user interface called rule viewer. Once the rule viewer has been opened, the input variables are supplied in the text box captioned input with each of them separated with a space. a) THE FIS EDITOR The fuzzy inference system editor shows a summary of the fuzzy inference system. It shows the mapping of the inputs to the system type and to the output. The names of the input variables and the processing methods for the FIS can be changed through the FIS editor. Figure 5: The FIS editor b) THE MEMBERSHIP FUNCTION EDITOR This can be opened from the command window by using the plotmf function but more easily through the GUI. The membership function editor shows a plot of highlighted input or output variable along their possible ranges and against the probability of occurrence. The name and the range of a membership value can be changed, so also the range of the particular variable itself through the membership function editor. [pic] Figure 6: The Membership Function editor c) THE RULE EDITOR The rule editor can be used to add, delete or change a rule. It is also used to change the connection type and the weight of a rule. The rule editor for this application is shown in figure 7. pic] Figure 7: Rule Editor d) THE RULE VIEWER The text box captioned input is used to supply the three input variables needed in the system. The appropriate input corresponds to the number of YES answer in the questionnaire for each of the input variables. For example, in the figure 8, all the input variables are 5 and the corresponding output is 13. 9, which specified at the top of the corresponding graphs. The input for each o f the input variables is specified at the top of the section corresponding to them, so also the output variable. The rule viewer for this work is presented in figure 8. [pic] Figure 8: The Rule editor e) THE SURFACE VIEWER The surface viewer shown in figure 9 is a 3-D graph that shows the relationship between the inputs and the output. The output (security Risk) is represented on the Z-axis while 2 of the inputs (Confidentiality and Integrity) are on the x and y axes and the other input (Availability) is held constant. The surface viewer shows a plot of the possible ranges of the input variables against the possible ranges of the output. 4) EVALUATION The security risk analysis system was evaluated using three newly completed software products from three different software development organizations. The output determines the security level of software under consideration. The summary of the evaluation is given in figure 11. For product A, 5 is the score for confidentiality, 5 for the integrity and 5 for the availability. |Software |Input |Output |Significance |Security Level | |Product A |5 5 5 |13. |45% slightly secure, 55% secure |46. 33 % | |Product B |8 7 8 |24. 2 |20% secure, 80% very secure |80. 60 % | |Product C |10 10 10 |28. 4 |35% very secure, 65% extremely secure |94. 67 % | Table 5 : Evaluation of Different Input Variables [pic] Figure 9 : The Surface Viewer [pic] Figure 10 : Histogram 3D CONCLUSION AND FINDING Thus, this work proposes a fuzzy logic-based technique for determination of level of security risk associated with software systems. Fuzzy logic is one of the major tools used for security analysis. The major goals of secure software which are used as the inputs to them system are the preservation of confidentiality (preventing unauthorized disclosure of information), preservation of integrity (preventing unauthorized alteration of information) and preservation of availability (preventing unauthorized destruction or denial of access or service to an authentic user). It might be necessary to redesign this system in a way that it will be deployable and will be without the use of MATLAB. It might also be necessary to use an adaptive fuzzy logic technique for security risk analysis. We have been able to design a system that can be used to evaluate the security risk associated with the production of secure software systems. This will definitely help software organizations meet up with the standard requirements. A technique for assessing security of software system before final deployment has been presented. The result of this study shows that if the software producing companies will incorporate security risk analysis into the production of software system, the issue of insecurity of software will be held to the minimum if not eliminated. This study has also revealed that if each of the software security goals can be increased to the maximum, then the level security will also be increased and the risk associated will be eliminated. Finally, security risk analysis is a path towards producing secure software and should be considered a significant activity by software development organizations. How to cite Software Security Risk Analysis Using Fuzzy Expert System, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

Revelation Book Essays - Observational Astronomy, Sky Plc, Sky, Gods

Revelation Book The Book of Revelation appears to be an account of things that take place beyond the earth where Jesus of Nazareth lived and died as well as where John's community was living. It is a vision of events in the heavens or the sky. If we do not assume that all the details about the sky and those who live in the sky were immediately and supernaturally revealed to John, then John and his readers could have become familiar with these details from two types of persons in the Mediterranean society who devoted themselves to knowledge of the sky. One type of person was those called "the wise men, the learned, the scholars." These people were in awe of the sky and insisted that no one could really grasp the greatness and magnificence of the celestial spheres. The best posture was to stand in awe of the creator. They thought that as far as celestial phenomena were concerned, one need only pay attention to traditional lore about weather, farming, sailing, and the like. On the other hand there was the type that believed one could surely get to understand what impact the sky and celestial beings had on human societies. This group included Babylonian, Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and Israelite astronomers, astrologers, prophets and or seers. This group sought information about their human groups from and concerning those living beings that controlled the skies. Of course their perception of the sky and their descriptions of those perceptions followed from their ethnic stories and ideologies. But for Israelites in the Hellenistic period, there would be God and a whole range of living sky beings, good and evil, never labeled as deities even if they performed the functions of deities. For the others, there were God, gods, lesser deities, and demons. Everyone who read and experienced sky phenomena perceived the various servants of God and the range of celestial forces, as well as thunder lightning, earthquakes, sky rumblings, hail, rain, sulfur rain. So John wasn't the only one with all of these details about the sky. There were other sources where you would be able to find such information as just explained above. John and his readers would think that events in the sky were significant for people on earth because they believed that the events or sky beings were commonly believed to be in control of human social realties: life and death, war and peace, climate and fertility, and the like. Therefore if the sky was perceived to be all of the human social realties then obviously this is why it would be so significant on earth. All of these events are important to the every day way of living and if these events were coming from visions of the sky then with out any doubt they would be extremely important on the earth and to everyone one on the earth. They believed that the events in the sky were significant for the people on earth also because only people of high ranking or status were able to view these sights. So if a king, priest, princes, or Roman senators say that they saw visions in the sky then people of lower elite's would believe what they say and if they said things that happened in their visions the people on earth would follow because to them it is coming from a higher position in life so they must be correct in what they are saying. People today consider events in the sky that impact on the earth and its inhabitants as atmospheric phenomena. Lightning, tornado thunder, sudden cloudbursts, and the like are simply all part of the weather. However the ancient Mediterranean's perceived the sky and considered such events as signs and sought social meanings in them. For the ancients, nothing could possibly happen in the sky that did not in some way impact the earth and its inhabitants. For example the account of Moses' meeting with God on Sinai is replete with the atmospheric phenomena. Smoke is interpreted as indicating God's presence ("because God came down upon it in fire"); thunder is interpreted as God's voice (" God replied to him in thunder"). So the ancient Mediterranean's perceived the sky as having total power on earth and the people that were on it. The sky to them was the all mighty everything that the sky did like lightning, thunder etc. they would right away put it in relation to something. They would always think of a reason for why it happened. They would never take